– Einwohner, Mittelstadt – Einwohner, Großstadt mehr Quelle: porcospiniproject.eu Stadt. Die weiteren damals getroffenen Definitionen sind die „Landstadt“ mit weniger als Einwohnern, die „Kleinstadt“ mit. «Großstadt» Großstädte sind nach einer Begriffsbestimmung der Internationalen Statistikkonferenz von alle Städte mit mindestens Einwohnern.
Market towns were distinguished from villages in that they were the economic hub of a surrounding area, and were usually larger and had more facilities.
In parallel with popular usage, however, there are many technical and official definitions of what constitutes a town, to which various interested parties cling.
In modern official usage the term town is employed either for old market towns, or for settlements which have a town council , or for settlements which elsewhere would be classed a city, but which do not have the legal right to call themselves such.
Any parish council can decide to describe itself as a town council, but this will usually only apply to the smallest "towns" because larger towns will be larger than a single civil parish.
Not all settlements which are commonly described as towns have a "Town Council" or "Borough Council". In fact, because of many successive changes to the structure of local government, there are now few large towns which are represented by a body closely related to their historic borough council.
These days, a smaller town will usually be part of a local authority which covers several towns. And where a larger town is the seat of a local authority, the authority will usually cover a much wider area than the town itself either a large rural hinterland, or several other, smaller towns.
Additionally, there are " new towns " which were created during the 20th century, such as Basildon , Redditch and Telford. Milton Keynes was designed to be a "new city" but legally it is still a town despite its size.
Some settlements which describe themselves as towns e. Shipston-on-Stour , Warwickshire are smaller than some large villages e. The status of a city is reserved for places that have Letters Patent entitling them to the name, historically associated with the possession of a cathedral.
The city of Brighton and Hove was created from the two former towns and some surrounding villages, and within the city the correct term for the former distinct entities is somewhat unclear.
It appears that a city may become a town, though perhaps only through administrative error: Rochester Kent has been a city for centuries but, when in the Medway district was created, a bureaucratic blunder meant that Rochester lost its official city status and is now technically a town.
St Asaph , which is the seat of the diocese of St Asaph , only became a city on 1 June though the diocese was founded in the mid sixth century.
In reality, the pre-qualification of having a cathedral of the established Church of England , and the formerly established Church in Wales or Church of Ireland , ceased to apply from The word town can also be used as a general term for urban areas, including cities and in a few cases, districts within cities.
In this usage, a city is a type of town; a large one, with a certain status. For example, central Greater London is sometimes referred to colloquially as "London town".
The " City of London " is the historical nucleus, informally known as the "Square Mile", and is administratively separate from the rest of Greater London, while the City of Westminster is also technically a city and is also a London borough.
A town in Scotland has no specific legal meaning and especially in areas which were or are still Gaelic -speaking can refer to a mere collection of buildings e.
Many locations of greatly different size will be encountered with a name ending with -town , -ton , -toun etc. They were highly autonomous units of local government from at least the 12th century until their abolition in , when a new regional structure of local government was introduced across the country.
Usually based upon a town, they had a municipal corporation and certain rights, such as a degree of self-governance and representation in the sovereign Parliament of Scotland adjourned in The term no longer describes units of local government although various claims are made from time to time that the legislation used was not competent to change the status of the Royal Burghs described below.
The status is now chiefly ceremonial but various functions have been inherited by current Councils e. Historically, the most important burghs were royal burghs , followed by burghs of regality and burghs of barony.
Some newer settlements were only designated as police burghs from the 19th century onward, a classification which also applies to most of the older burghs.
Since the Tenth Amendment to the United States Constitution largely leaves local-government organization to the individual U.
In some states, the term "town" refers to an area of population distinct from others in some meaningful dimension, typically population or type of government.
The characteristic that distinguishes a town from another type of populated place — a city, borough, village, or township , for example — differs from state to state.
In some states, a town is an incorporated municipality ; that is, one with a charter received from the state, similar to a city see incorporated town , while in others, a town is unincorporated.
In some instances, the term "town" refers to a small incorporated municipality of less than a population threshold specified by state statute, while in others a town can be significantly larger.
Some states do not use the term "town" at all, while in others the term has no official meaning and is used informally to refer to a populated place, of any size, whether incorporated or unincorporated.
In still other states, the words "town" and "city" are legally interchangeable. Small town life has been a major theme in American literature, especially stories of rejection by young people leaving for the metropolis.
Since the use of the term varies considerably by state, individual usages are presented in the following sections:.
In Alabama , the legal use of the terms "town" and "city" is based on population. A municipality with a population of 2, or more is a city, while less than 2, is a town Code of Alabama , Section For legislative purposes, municipalities are divided into eight classes based on population.
Class 8 includes all towns, plus cities with populations of less than 6, Code of Alabama , Section In Arizona , the terms "town" and "city" are largely interchangeable.
A community may incorporate under either a town or a city organization with no regard to population or other restrictions according to Arizona law see Arizona Revised Statutes, Title 9.
Cities may function under slightly differing governmental systems, such as the option to organize a district system for city governments, but largely retain the same powers as towns.
Arizona law also allows for the consolidation of neighboring towns and the unification of a city and a town, but makes no provision for the joining of two adjacent cities.
In California , the words "town" and "city" are synonymous by law see Cal. There are two types of cities in California: Like charter cities, general law cities may incorporate as "City of Name " or "Town of Name.
Some cities change their minds as to how they want to be called. The sign in front of the municipal offices in Los Gatos, California , for example, reads "City of Los Gatos", but the words engraved on the building above the front entrance when the city hall was built read "Town of Los Gatos.
Instead, the word "town" is commonly used to indicate any unincorporated community that might otherwise be known as an unincorporated village.
Additionally, some people may still use the word "town" as shorthand for "township", which is not an incorporated municipality but an administrative division of a county.
The Hawaiian Island of Oahu has various communities that may be referred to as towns. However, the entire island is lumped as a single incorporated city, the City and County of Honolulu.
The towns on Oahu are merely unincorporated census-designated places. In Illinois , the word "town" has been used both to denote a subdivision of a county called a township,  and to denote a form of municipality similar to a village , in that it is generally governed by a president and trustees rather than a mayor.
Evanston , Berwyn and Cicero are examples of Towns in this manner. Under the current Illinois Municipal Code, an incorporated or unincorporated town may choose to incorporate as a city or as a village, but other forms of incorporation are no longer allowed.
In Louisiana a "town" is defined as being a municipal government having a population of 1, to 4, inhabitants.
While a "town" is generally considered a smaller entity than a "city", the two terms are legally interchangeable in Maryland.
The only exception may be the Independent city of Baltimore , which is a special case, as it was created by the Constitution of Maryland.
In Nevada , a town has a form of government, but is not considered to be incorporated. It generally provides a limited range of services, such as land use planning and recreation, while leaving most services to the county.
Many communities have found this "semi-incorporated" status attractive; the state has only 20 incorporated cities , and towns as large as Paradise , in Census , home of the Las Vegas Strip.
Most county seats are also towns, not cities. In the six New England states, a town is a municipality and a more important unit than the county.
In Connecticut , Rhode Island and 7 out of 14 counties in Massachusetts , in fact, counties only exist as map divisions and have no legal functions; in the other three states, counties are primarily judicial districts, with other functions primarily in New Hampshire , Maine , and Vermont.
In all six, towns perform functions that in most states would be county functions. The defining feature of a New England town, as opposed to a city, is that a town meeting and a board of selectmen serve as the main form of government for a town, while cities are run by a mayor and a city council.
For example, Brookline, Massachusetts is a town, even though it is fairly urban, because of its form of government.
A "town" in the context of New Jerseyan local government refers to one of five types and one of eleven forms of municipal government.
While Town is often used as a shorthand to refer to a Township, the two are not the same. The Town Act of allowed any municipality or area with a population exceeding 5, to become a Town through a petition and referendum process.
Under the Act, a newly incorporated town was divided into at least three wards, with two councilmen per ward serving staggered two-year terms, and one councilman at large, who also served a two-year term.
The councilman at large served as chairman of the town council. The Town Act of completely revised the Town form of government and applied to all towns incorporated under the Town Act of and to those incorporated by a special charter granted by the Legislature prior to Under the Act, the mayor is also the councilman at large, serving a term of two years, unless increased to three years by a petition and referendum process.
The Council under the Town Act of consists of eight members serving staggered two-year terms with two elected from each of four wards. One councilman from each ward is up for election each year.
Towns with different structures predating the Act may retain those features unless changed by a petition and referendum process. Two new provisions were added in to the statutes governing towns, First, a petition and referendum process was created whereby the voters can require that the mayor and town council be elected to four-year terms of office.
The second new provision defines the election procedure in towns with wards. The mayor in a town chairs the town council and heads the municipal government.
The mayor may both vote on legislation before council and veto ordinances. A veto may be overridden by a vote of two-thirds of all the members of the council.
The council may enact an ordinance to delegate all or a portion of the executive responsibilities of the town to a municipal administrator.
Fifteen New Jersey municipalities currently have a type of Town, nine of which operate under the town form of government.
In New York , a town is similarly a division of the county, but with less importance than in New England. Of some importance, a town provides a closer level of governance than its enclosing county, providing almost all municipal services to unincorporated communities, called hamlets , and selected services to incorporated areas, called villages.
In New York, a town typically contains a number of such hamlets and villages. However, due to their independent nature, incorporated villages may exist in two towns or even two counties example: Almond village , New York.
There are no towns in the five counties — also known as boroughs — that make up New York City. What is a "town" in New York is called a township in some other states.
In North Carolina , all cities, towns, and villages are incorporated as municipalities. According to the North Carolina League of Municipalities,  there is no legal distinction among a city, town, or village—it is a matter of preference of the local government.
Some North Carolina cities have populations as small as 1, residents, while some towns, such as Cary , have populations of greater than , In Pennsylvania , only one municipality is incorporated as a "town": Most of the rest of the state is incorporated as townships there are also boroughs and cities , which function in much the same way as the towns of New York or New England, although they may have different forms of government.
In Texas , although some municipalities refer to themselves as "towns" or "villages" to market themselves as an attractive place to live , these names have no specific designation in Texas law; legally all incorporated places are considered cities.
In Utah , the legal use of the terms "town" and "city" is based on population. A municipality with a population of 1, or more is a city, while less than 1, is a town.
In addition, cities are divided into five separate classes based on population. In Virginia , a town is an incorporated municipality similar to a city though with a smaller required minimum population.
But while cities are by Virginia law independent of counties, towns are contained within counties. A town in the state of Washington is a municipality that has a population of less than 1, at incorporation, however an existing town can reorganize as a code city.
See List of towns in Washington. Wisconsin has Towns which are areas outside of incorporated cities and villages. These Towns retain the name of the Civil Township from which they evolved and are often the same name as a neighboring City.
Some Towns, especially those in urban areas, have services similar to those of incorporated Cities, such as police departments. These Towns will from time to time incorporate into Cities, such as Fox Crossing in from the former town of Menasha.
Wyoming statute indicates towns are incorporated municipalities with populations of less than 4, Municipalities of 4, or more residents are considered "first-class cities".
In Vietnam, a district-level town Vietnamese: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Town disambiguation.
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List of cities and towns in Bulgaria. List of towns in Canada and Municipal government in Canada. List of cities and towns in Germany.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. List of cities and towns in Hong Kong. List of cities and towns in Iceland.
List of populated places in the Republic of Ireland. List of towns in Lithuania. List of cities and municipalities in the Philippines and Municipalities of the Philippines.
List of cities and towns in Poland. List of cities and towns in Romania. Types of inhabited localities in Russia.
New towns of Singapore. City status in the United Kingdom. List of urban areas in England by population and list of urban areas in Wales by population.
List of burghs in Scotland and List of towns and cities in Scotland by population. List of cities and towns in Utah.
City government in Washington state. Administrative divisions of Wisconsin. Retrieved 7 February Archived from the original PDF on Flags of the World.
Journal of Public Economics. Begrepp och definitioner" PDF in Swedish. Public electronic dictionary of Ukrainian language ukrlit. Town of Scales Mound , Ill.
North Carolina League of Municipalities. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on August 8, Retrieved May 11, Cities get a fixed allocation of state funding for building and maintaining those roads, while counties must compete with each other and other VDOT priorities for a substantial portion of their road budget.
Cities have been granted more authorities, such as the right of city councils to issue bonds to build roads without a voter referendum counties must get voter approval in a referendum before issuing road bonds In Virginia, towns have distinct boundaries, established by the General Assembly or by courts guided by laws passed by the legislature.
For example, residents of the four towns of Haymarket , Quantico , Dumfries , and Occoquan are also residents of Prince William County.
Municipal Research and Services Center of Washington. Retrieved December 14, Archived from the original on July 25, Designations for types of administrative territorial entities.
Insular area Local government area Protected area Special area Statistical area Combined statistical area Metropolitan statistical area Micropolitan statistical area Urban area.
County borough Metropolitan borough. Federal capital Imperial capital. Autonomous community Residential community. Administrative county Autonomous county Consolidated city-county Metropolitan county Non-metropolitan Viscountcy.
Capital district City district Congressional district Electoral district Federal district Indian government district Land district Metropolitan district Non-metropolitan district Military district Municipal district Police district Regional district Rural district Sanitary district Subdistrict Urban district Special district.
Census division Police division Subdivision. City municipality County municipality Norway Nova Scotia Regional county municipality Direct-controlled municipality District municipality Mountain resort municipality Neutral municipality Regional municipality Resort municipality Rural municipality Specialized municipality.
Autonomous prefecture Subprefecture Super-prefecture Praetorian prefecture. Autonomous province Overseas province Roman province.
Administrative region Autonomous region Capital region Development region Economic region Mesoregion Microregion Overseas region Planning region Special administrative region Statistical region Subregion.
Biosphere reserve Ecological reserve Game reserve Indian reserve Nature reserve. Federal state Free state Sovereign state. Capital territory Federal capital territory Dependent territory Federal territory Military territory Organized incorporated territory Overseas territory Union territory Unorganized territory.
Census town Market town. Charter township Civil township Paper township Survey township Urban township. Autonomous territorial unit Local administrative unit Municipal unit Regional unit.
Economic zone Exclusive economic zone Free economic zone Special economic zone Free-trade zone Neutral zone Self-administered zone.
Arabic terms for country subdivisions. French terms for country subdivisions. Greek terms for country subdivisions. Portuguese terms for country subdivisions.
Cidade Vila Aldeia Bairro Lugar. Slavic terms for country subdivisions. Spanish terms for country subdivisions. Turkish terms for country subdivisions.
Historical derivations in italics. Census division , Electoral district , Political division , and List of administrative divisions by country.
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